The first written records of whiskey date back to 1405 and come from Ireland, where the nuns produced whiskey. It is also mentioned in Scotland: in the register of the Treasury of Scotland there is an entry dated June 1, 1494 about the transfer of “malt to brother John Kore for the production of aqua-vitae” (Scottish Gaelic uisge beatha, Irish uisce beathadh). It is believed that the whiskey was known for at least several centuries before these records. It is not known when and where the whiskey distillate was first produced, and the fact that alcoholic beverages were local and were not registered at the time makes it difficult to determine the origin of the drink. In addition, it is quite possible that the discovery of the distillation process will take place in different places, independently of each other.
In 1505, the Edinburgh Guild of Surgeons and Hairdressers monopolized the production of whiskey. Whiskey began to be sold in pharmacies as a miracle cure. In 1579, the Scottish Parliament banned the production of whiskey by peasants and people of common descent. However, this led to the development of “clandestine” small factories. Some authors believe that the production of alcohol by distillation began in the 8th-9th centuries AD. e. In the Middle East and Christian monks brought this art to Ireland and Britain. There is a well-known legend that the distillation process became popular in Ireland and England thanks to St. Patrick – he set foot on the shores of Ireland to produce “holy water” and convert the pagans; However, alcohol lived before the invention of distillation. Whiskey flavor, water and grain quality, malt production method, filtration method, barrel properties, holding time, copper distillation cube design and shape, packaging air temperature, etc. This is determined by many parameters, including. Wine barrels are used – sherry, madeira, port, in such barrels during aging there are traces of taste and aroma. Some whiskeys are age-blended — first aged in two different barrels and then blended. There are also catch options, for example, the whiskey has been aged in another barrel for the last three years. However, there are two main destinations: Scotland and Ireland. First, it is distinguished by the tradition of drying malt using peat as fuel, which gives the drink a special smoky flavor; the second – by drying “morphing” and triple distillation in the ovens, which, in turn, makes the whiskey softer.